Penhow Castle, Newport, Monmouthshire, South Wales. A Grade II* listed building building dating from the 12th Century with alterations in the 14th Century, 15th Century and 17th Century. The property was extensively restored in the 1970’s but with some areas remaining unfinished. Stuart provided a listed building survey and building conservation advice. The restoration was carried out before the lime revival and therefore used in appropriate modern materials. During the inspection it was evident that many of the current defects were caused by the use of these modern materials, instead of traditional lime materials which are now available again. Other defects were caused by poor design / workmanship and simple repairs were essential to reduce the risk of future structural failure.